Posted in Genealogy, Jewish Gen, Michlosky, Poland

Family History Library Visit and Polish Ancestral Town Findings

I was in Salt Lake City this past week for RootsTech and took the opportunity to visit the Family History Library and found a few interesting items.

The Family History Library is the largest genealogy library in the world holding over 2 million microfilms of important genealogical records and about half a million books. It was founded in 1894 by the LDS church to help their members in family history research but is generously open to everyone to visit.

There is one floor filled with microfilms of US records ranging from vitals, church records, old newspaper, military records and other records that were saved and might be interesting for researchers looking for people born before 1930. There is another floor entirely full of genealogy books organized by each state and there is also an international floor in the basement with both microfilm and genealogy books – mostly in foreign languages. This is where I spent most of my time.  On the ground floor is the Family Discovery Center where you can look up immigration patterns on large screens, take pictures in your ancestors clothes, and even make your own video recording to include in your family tree. In total there are 5 floors.

I found a few missing vital records for our family tree in the US microfilm collection and was able to look at some interesting maps and books on the areas our families are from.  One of my favorite finds was a microfilm of the ‘Civil Registration of Jewish births, marriages, and deaths for Wiżajny, Poland from 1829-1880′. Wiżajny is where I currently believe the Michloskys are from. I haven’t confirmed this and am still looking for a record or source that places these surnames there.  I came up with this assumption by taking the name of a shtetl of origin I found for Jacob Michlosky in a history book and searched on JewishGen.   Present day Wiżajny, Poland (Vizhon [Yid]) was the closest match. I found the the civil registration records in the Family History Library by searching ‘Wizanjy’ in the place search option in the catalog and then clicking on Jewish Records under the findings list.

Unfortunately these documents were only in Russian and Polish and very tiny writing so I couldn’t search through them for a connection. But being able to look at them was still well worth the effort as you can see they are beautiful.  Knowing that they are there is also helpful.  I might try to take a Russian, Polish or Yiddish for genealogists course and maybe one day be able to look through them meaningfully for a Michlosky (our surname possibly from there) reference.

sourcefhl-wizajny
FHL Source for Wizanjy Jewish Vital Records
Some tips for visiting the Family History Library

  • If you are in Salt Lake City, make sure you set time aside to visit the FHL – both for research and the Discovery Center (30 minutes to an hour in the Discovery Center)
  • Ask for help! The people there are so nice and eager to help you – they will help you learn how to find microfilm, how to use the microfilm readers, how to save documents you find in the best format, and even give you advice on genealogical brick walls
  • Bring a USB – you can use their computers to save documents found on microfilm. You can also buy one there if needed
  • Bring bottled water
  • You can bring your own computer, but there are computers there to use (I did not need my own)
  • Try to come prepared with microfilm or books that you would like to look at.  This will save time and help you not be so overwhelmed.  You can search the Library catalog from home here https://familysearch.org/catalog/search
  • Look for and/or request your microfilm list when you first get there.  One of the microfilms I wanted (1 out of 10) was in storage and took a couple days to come in.
  • Bring your camera/smart phone and have a scan app on it – and charger!  
  • Also (which I did not know) there might be a Family History Library Center near you and you can request an interlibrary loan if you can’t make it to SLC!

polish-immigration

russianimmigration
FHL Family  Discovery Center – Where are your from?
Notes and Links

Posted in Genealogy, Jewish Gen, Pearlman

Pearlmans – From Russia to New Jersey to Pennsylvania

Meyer and Anna Pearlman 

Meyer Pearlman is J’s Great Grandfather.  He is the Pearlman immigrant who came over to America from Minsk, Belarus (then Russia) abt 1900.  Things I would like to know about Meyer:

  • Where in Minsk did he come from?
  • Information on his family in Belarus

Here is what I know now of Meyer [Myer, Max].  Myer was born on January 10, 1880 in Minsk Russia to Julius Yuna [Jacob] Pearlman and Ida Woodinski. [1] [2][3][4]I believe he came over between 1898 and 1900 when he was about 20 years old.[5] He was naturalised in 1915. [4]

His sisters and brothers were the following who also came over – Hannah Pearlman Margolin, Sam, Harry, Louis, Charles, Carl and Henry (unconfirmed).

He was married to Anna [Hannah, Annie].  Who also came over between 1897 before Meyer according to the 1910 census or with him in 1898 and was naturalised in 1915 according to the 1920 census.[4] Meyer and Anna married around 1903 – that year he was 23 years old and she was 20.[5] She was 15 years old in 1898 when she arrived, therefore I am making the assumption she came over with her family and was married to Meyer in the USA.[6]

Meyer and Anna had four children:  James Max Pearlman Stacey (1904-1961), Pearl Pearlman Epstein (1906-1994), Sidney Pearlman, J’s Grandfather (1910-1988), and Florence Pearlman Vitale (1917-19884).  Their first 4 children were born in Newark, NJ and Florence was born in Wilkes-Barre, PA.

In 1910, Meyer lived in Newark City, New Jersey where there was a community of 80,000 Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. He was 31 and lived with his wife Anna, 28. He was a laborer working in the Spring Beds industry and his wife stayed home.  They lived with their children Max, 6, Pearl, 4 and Celia, 3 months. They rented a house on Somerset Street. Meyer and Anna’s native tongue was Yiddish but they both spoke English.  Meyer most likely had family or community connections from Minsk in Newark and went there first before moving on to Wilkes-Barre.  It’s possible they attended one of the immigrant synagogues started in the rented quarters and he visited the Young Men’s Hebrew Association at some point. [7]  

meyeranna1910census-newark
1910 Federal Census Newark

By 1914, the Pearlmans moved to Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania where they lived until 1942. In 1905 there was around a total population of 1,800 jewish residents  in Wilkes-Barre with 4 synagogues and a number of education and social institutions.[8] In 1914, they lived on 58 North Sherman Street when the Wilkes-Barre Record reported that there was a case of Scarlet Fever in the Pearlman Household.[9]

scarlet-fever-reported-in-house

By 1918, Meyer was living on 241 East Market Street.  He was 39 years old and was working as a Mechanic at Nelson Brothers.  Meyer was 5’4” and had blue eyes and dark hair according to his WWI draft card:[10]

myerpearlmandraft-wwii

In 1920, Meyer and Anna, 42 and 38,  still lived at 241 East Market Street with Max, 15, Pearl, 13, Sidney, 9 and Florence, 2.  They were naturalised citizens at this time.  The children were in school, Anna stayed home and Meyer worked as a Laborer in a Silk Mill.[11] He is also listed in the 1921 Wilkes-Barre City Directory as a grocer and in 1923 as a Laborer. [ 12]

meyeranna1920
1920 Federal Census Wilkes-Barre, PA
1921citydir-mpearlman
1921 Wilkes-Barre City Directory
mpearlmancitydirectory-1923
1923 Wilkes-Barre City Directory

In 1922 it appears that Meyer bought 236 East Market Street which they lived in by 1925 when Meyer was 45 years old and was the Department Superintendent at Nelson Brothers, where his son Sidney, at 14 also worked at that time [13][14]

1925-city-directory
1925 Wilkes-Barre City Directory

legal-dispute-over-property

nelson-brothers

By 1942, Meyer at 62 and Anna at 59 moved to Brooklyn, Kings, New York where their daughter Pearl Epstein lived with her family.  Meyer and Anna lived with Pearl at 567 Monroe Street, Brooklyn the same address that Martin Epstein and his parents (who also immigrated from Minsk)  lived at for over 30 years since about 1925 (according to census records under the Epstein family tree). [15] Meyer passed away in 1951 at 71 and Anna Pearlman died in 1950 at Sixty-seven. They are both buried in Mount Hebron Cemetery in Queen’s New York.[16]

Notes

  1. U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942 [Database online, ancestry.com] – note his WWI card has 15th January 1979
  2. Samson, Robert  Genealogy Research: Meyer Pearlman Genealogy Family Sheet’ Manhasset Hills, New York. 23 August 1992
  3. US Social Security Application. Meyer Pearlman. 10th January 1980
  4. 1920 Federal Census [Database online, ancestry.com]
  5. 1910 Federal Census [Database online, ancestry.com]
  6. The information I have from Robert Samson’s genealogy is that Anna and Family are from ‘Starin, Russia’ – I have not yet done any research on her family
  7. http://www.jewishmag.com/113mag/newark/newark.htm
  8. History of the Jews in Pennsylvania
  9. History of the Jews in Pennsylvania 2
  10. U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. [online database ancestry.com]
  11. 1920 Federal Census [Online database, ancestry.com]
  12. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 1921 WIlkes Barre, PA; 1923 Wilkes Barre PA (both copied inserts)
  13. Newspapers.com – The Wilkes-Barre Record – 22 Feb 1922, Wed – Page 8
  14. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995: 1925, Wilkes Barre, PA
  15. U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942 [Database online, ancestry.com] – note his WWI card has 15th January 1979
  16. Meyer Pearlman Find a Grave
  17. Further Information to Confirm: There is another name for a child in the 1910 – Celia who was 3 months old during the 1910 Federal Census completed in April – putting her birth in February 1910 (is this Sidney?
  18. Currently looking for Naturalization Records
Posted in Belarus Genealogy, Genealogy, Jewish Gen, Pearlman

Finding an Elusive Maiden Name Through Social Security Documents

I got an amazing genealogical gift through the mail – a new surname for the family from Minsk, Belarus! I received the Social Security Application for J’s Great Grandfather, Meyer Pearlman, in the mail which gave me the maiden name of his mother, Ida Woodinski.  We believe Meyer (1880-1951), our immigrant ancestor, came over without his parents, Julius [Jacob] and Ida Pearlman who stayed in Minsk (then Russia) where they were born around 1845 and died between 1900-1910.[1]  I had requested the application from the Social Security Administration about 5 weeks ago. It was incredibly exciting to open and see new information, because I wasn’t keeping track of when it would come and I wasn’t sure if they would even be able to find it.[2]

The record was signed by Meyer Pearlman on December 1, 1936.  It gave me information on his address during that time, his employer and employer’s address, his birthdate, his place of birth (listed as Minsk, Russia), his father’s name and his mother’s maiden name.  We had seen most of this information before, but Woodinski was new! Woodinski could also be a variation of of Yiddish Budinsky, or Budensky. [3]  This find gives us a whole new line to look at and another possible way to link us to somewhere in Minsk.

The other interesting piece I found on this document to explore was Meyer’s father’s first name, Jacob.  I had his name as Julius Yuna Pearlman until we saw this document.  His name Julius came from genealogical research done by J’s Great Uncle 20 years ago so I will need to do some more digging and cross checking with both of the names.

pearlmanssa

US Social Security Applications – What is it and how to get it

The Social Security Administration grew out of the period after the depression in the 1930s – which began a call for change to support the Americans in times of economic shock, leading to the signing of the Social Security Act in 1935 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Social Security Act included several provisions for general social welfare as well as a continuing income for retired workers, aged 65 and older (a major issue of the depression being our elderly population was living on complete dependency and unable to work).[4]

social-security
Social Security poster; FDR Library Photo Collection [5]

I found my ancestors’ Social Security Application through two steps;  1) Searching for the Social Security Death Index (SSDI) where you might a social security number and then 2) Send in a request for their Application for a Social Security Number, Form SS-5 – which has all of this information I listed above!

You can search for a deceased person’s Social Security Death Index (SSDI) if they passed after 1962 on familysearch or ancestry sites.  The Social Security Act was passed in 1935, so any person alive after 1935 could have a SSDI and/or an application record.  The SSDI has limited information (it can be used as a proof of death) but you can take the Social Security Number listed on the SSDI and send away for the original Social Security Application that was most likely completed and signed by your ancestor.  A request for this document can be done through the Social Security Administration using a Form SSA-771 under the Freedom of Information Act.  This can be done online if you are sure you do not need a proof of death with your application.  The Social Security Administration is only able to send you documents for persons who are at least 100 years old along with proof of death and/or they are more than 120 years old.

Here are a few links that helped me::

Family Search  Summary of US Social Security Records for Genealogists

Social Security Administration Online Request for Deceased Individual’s Social Security Record

Notes

  1. Various census records of children who mother and father from Minsk Russia: 1910 Federal Census [Database online, ancestry.com]
  2. Social Security Application, 1936.  United States Social Security Administration Archives
  3. JewishGen search for potential matches
  4. History of Social Security Administration: https://www.ssa.gov/history/briefhistory3.html
  5. FDR Library Photo Collection. NPx. 53-227(1733).(picture)
Posted in Genealogy, Jewish Gen, Michlosky

Bottling Whisky in 1880 Pennsylvania – Michlosky History

quartarticle
Dollar Weekly News (Wilkes-Barre) 7 May 1887

I found some entertaining newspaper articles from the 1880s about Jacob Michlosky (1852-1900), [1] J’s Great Great Grandfather, and one of his businesses.   Jacob immigrated to the US from Eastern Europe in about 1870 and lived in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.[2]   The first article I found was from 1887 (below) that discusses a court proceeding in regards to Jacob’s ‘Quart License Application’.[3]  The District Attorney  and City Attorney were his counsels and they presented evidence to show ‘the applicant was a proper person.’ Their argument also included information that Hungarians, Polanders and prominent people in town patronize his place and ‘bring their little jug’ to have it filled. Then there are two women who argue against him,  testifying that they have witnessed a lot of people leaving his place drunk! One of these women was Mrs. Hughes – who afterwards Mrs. Michlosky testified that ‘in fact’ Mr. Hughes had come in to get a quart of whisky but she didn’t give it to him because he had no money! Jacob also included in his testimony that he did not sell Liquor on Sunday except for one day when Mrs. Vanarsdale had the cramps.  The sub heading of the newspaper page was ‘The Women’s Temperance Union of that borough present in a body some lively and interesting testimony.’  There was a full page of articles about the temperance movement arguing against hotel, restaurant and quart license applications! It must have been a lively day at court! [3]  

I found another instance Jacob was listed under the Restaurant and Quarts applicant list.  The newspaper says that a Quart License is a license to ‘sell liquor buy the Quart and as bottlers’. [4] The newspapers  also talk about increased patronage, patrons going Jacob’s to fill up jugs.[5]  It sounds to me that he was running ‘jug house’ or bar at his home.  He did not have a restaurant license in 1887 but later his sons Joseph and Harry ran a restaurant – it could be the same place, the jug house could have evolved into a restaurant [6] (which later evolved into a successful banquet hall run by Harry and Joseph according to newspaper announcements[7]). I’m assuming our ancestor was running a neighborhood bar, maybe even a distillery where he lived in the Heights of Wilkes-Barre (the Jewish neighborhood at that time) in the time of the temperance movement.[4][8]

quartlic
Wilkes-Barre Semi Weekly Record, April 1887 [4]
good-patronage
The Sunday Leader (Wilkes-Barre, PA), June 1887 [5]
In doing a little research, I found out that bottling/jug houses/bars were common before 1900, as glass bottles were too expensive for whisky producers before the invention of automatic bottling machines.  Hand blown bottles were fragile and rarely used.  Instead, consumers would bring their own bottle, flask or jug to purchase whisky from the barrel wherever it was sold locally like the one pictured below (The same for other goods such as sacks for flour, barrel for lard, ect).[9][10]  I also read a few articles that mentioned that Pennsylvania was famous for its Rye before Prohibition (1919) and that whisky distillers survived during the time of the temperance movement and prohibition by promoting the drink as an important medicine – as in the article of J’s Great Great Grandfathers court proceedings.[11][3]    

Notes:

  1. Jacob Michlosky, Holche Yoscher Cemetery; Hanover, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, USA. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current
  2. 1900 Federal Census Records; Year: 1900; Census Place: Census Place: Wilkes Barre Ward 9, Luzerne, Pennsylvania; Accessed Ancestry.Com
  3. ‘Granting License; Orphans Court, Saturday’ Dollar Weekly News (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) 7 May 1887, Sat • Page 8
  4. ‘License Applications to run hotels, restaurants and to sell liquor buy the Quart and as bottlers.’ Wilkes-Barre Semi-Weekly Record – 22 Apr 1887, Fri – Page 5
  5. The Sunday Leader  (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) 19 Jun 1887, Sun • Page 8
  6. ‘Business Men’s Gossip’ Wilkes-Barre Times Leader, the Evening News (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) 28 Mar 1904, MonPage 2
  7. ‘Hampton Hall: Amusement Hall employees guest of their employers.’ The Wilkes-Barre Record  (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) 28 Dec 1914, MonPage 11
  8. Levin, Marjorie, The Jews of Wilkes-Barre : 150 years (1845-1995) in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania: Wilkes-Barre, Pa. : Jewish Community
    Center of Wyoming Valley, 1999.
  9. ‘History of Spirits in America.’ Distilled Spirits Council of the United States [Accessed November 2016] 
  10. Oatman-Stanford, Hunter. ‘Drunk History: The Rise, Fall, and Revival of All-American Whiskey’ 12 August 2015; Collector’s Weekly [Accessed November 2016]
  11. Veach, Michael.Dating Old Whiskey Bottles from the 19th Century.’ The Bourbon Review; 15 February 2016; 
  12. Note to do further research on Jug House and vario
    us articles on Tippling House and context of selling liquor in 1880s
  13. Note to do further research at the ‘Orphans Court’  and ‘Quarter Sessions’ records in Luzerne County, PA
  14. Notes for further research: in newspaper articles in 1888-1889 appears to be a rivalry with a A.Rush Pembleton, various incidences wgere each are witness against each other in liquor cases

juginsta

Posted in Genealogy, Jewish Gen, Michlosky

A Michlosky Puzzle – Lithuanian or Polish?

I thought I had a huge breakthrough in locating the ancestral shtetl (Jewish town) of the Michlosky line while looking at an old history book at the Library of Congress this week – but when I went to confirm connections, I came up with some contradictory information that has left me with a bit of a puzzle.

Michlosky Origins – What I knew:

Our Michlosky immigrant ancestor, Jacob,  lived, worked and raised his children in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania from about 1880 to his death in 1900.[2] He was born in 1852.[1] Jacob and his wife, Yetta Silverstein, had 6 children.[3] Our ancestor is Yetta and Jacob’s, 2nd son, Harry Michlosky (J’s Great Grandfather), who was a prominent businessman and was in the local newspaper many times for his business and various philanthropic events.[4]    Harry was born in Wilkes-Barre so to find where this line immigrated from, I had to find his father Jacob, J’s Great Great Grandfather.[5] [6]

The only information on Jacob’s origin we have is a from his first son, Peter Samuel’s death certificate where it is listed as ‘Russia’.[7]  I do not know where in Russia and today’s map looks very different from the map during their time. Russia could mean any number of present day Eastern European countries.

petemichloskydeathcertificate

Jacob Michlosky -What I found at the Library of Congress:

I searched Wilkes-Barre History books in the LoC Catalog and found a few books from the early 20th century.  I ordered them to the Main Reading room and spent a couple hours browsing and looking for our family surnames.  I found two very exciting things in The History of Jews of Wilkes-Barre by Marjorie Levin[8]: 1) a match to our Jacob that might link us to a shtetl in Lithuania and 2) Last name variations for the Michlosky in Pennsylvania.  Specifically mentioned in the book:

  • An Abraham (Abram) Michelowsky [Micholsky] and Jacob Michelowsky [Micholsky] were among the group that formed a new orthodox Synagogue in Wilkes-Barre on 10 October 1881: Holche Yoscher
  • The Holche Yoscher Synagogue building was dedicated in 1887 on 198 Lincoln Street in the Heights neighborhood of Wilkes-Barre
  • The group of founders were from Wizan or Vischan Lithuania (the Holche Yoscher name coming from their origin)
bnaibirthsynagoge
Picture of an 1881 Synagogue in Wilkes-Barre: B’Nai Birth. pg 26 [8]

Things I already know that I believe connect us to this Jacob:

  • Harry’s father Jacob was buried in Holche Yosher cemetery  [1]
  • There is only one Jacob buried there along with his wife Yetta (1847-1922). Yetta is confirmed to be our ancestor linked through her obituary, census records, available vital records of her children. [8] [3] [7][10] In the same plot are an Abraham Michlosky (1849-1930) and Annie Berman Michlosky (1851 d 1909) [1]
  • My assumption at this point is that Jacob and Abraham were brothers.

I took the new information I found and looked up the dedication of the Holche Yoscher Synagogue in the old Wilkes-Barre newspapers to see if I could find Jacob and Abraham’s names.  I found nothing for a Holche Yoscher.  The history book said the new building was dedicated in 1887 on Lincoln Street, and I remember a few of the weddings of J’s relatives occurred at the  ‘Lincoln Street Synagogue’ according to newspaper announcements.  I searched ‘Lincoln Street Synagogue’, refining the search for the year 1887.  Sure enough, I found a few articles discussing the new synagogue.[11][12]

None of these articles discussed the founding members. Searches on Jacob also did not link him to the Synagogue, so I decided to search Abraham Michlosky.  Abraham, who lived to 86 years of age,  appeared a few times later in life in the 1930s. He was the honorary member at anniversary celebrations for Holche Yoscher as the last living Charter Member (confirming the Abraham buried next to our Jacob as a founding member from the book).[13]  I also found a few obituary articles.[14]  These articles did not specifically mention his brothers or the descendants of Jacob but they did confirm Abraham’s wife was Annie Berman, the other woman buried next to our Jacob and Yetta Michlosky.  

synagogue-honor
The Evening News (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) 19 Feb 1936. Page 16

 

While all of these finds and information were exciting, as they were all lining up – the discovery of Abraham’s death certificate and obituary inserted new and possibly contradictory information to the search for Jacob’s ancestral home in Eastern Europe.  The History book [8] clearly said that the founders of Holche Yoscher were from the shtetls of Wizan or Vischan in Lithuania and named a Jacob and an Abraham Michlosky as founding members (a total of 6).  Which was confirmed by our Abraham’s obituary (linked to us by cemetery plot at this point).  But Abraham Michlosky’s death certificate said he was born in Poland.  His obituary specifically said he was from Warsaw, Poland. [14][15]  While J can remember some mention of a Lithuanian background, Poland coming up is a surprise.  Were one of the documents incorrect and/or is this just a question of borders changing?  

abrahamdeathcert

abrahamobit
The Evening News (Wilkes-Barre, PA) 28 Jun 1938, pg 2

I have come up with a few next steps to find more clues:

  • See if I can contact the author of the history book and ask about the sources that led her to her conclusions and/or if she is available to discuss her thoughts on the founders being from Lithuania (maybe a stretch!)?
  • Contact the Holche Yosher cemetery and synagogue in Wilkes-Barre, PA to see if they have any records on their founder’s (I haven’t been successful to date finding contact information).
  • Look up the changing borders of Lithuania and Poland during the years between founding of the synagogue and Abraham’s death
  • Research the descendants of Abraham to see if there are any clues.
  • I’m still missing a death record for Jacob, and would like to order his son’s, our great grandfather, SS application to see what clues may be there

Notes

  1. Jacob Michlosky, Holche Yoscher Cemetery; Hanover, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, USA. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current
  2. Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, City Directory, 1882; U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995
  3. 1910 Federal Census Records; Census Place: Wilkes Barre Ward 9, Luzerne, Pennsylvania; Accessed Ancestry.Com
  4. The Wilkes-Barre Recrod, The Evening News, The Wilkes-Barre Times Leader (various 1911-1945)
  5. Harry Michlosky, Temple B’nai Israel Cemetery, Elmira, NY, USA. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current
  6. U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918; Registration State: Pennsylvania; Registration County: Luzerne; Roll: 1927076; Draft Board: 1 (Also, WWII Draft Registration Card)
  7. Samuel Pete Micholsky, 1936: Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1964 Accessed: Ancestry.com
  8. Levin, Marjorie, The Jews of Wilkes-Barre : 150 years (1845-1995) in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania: Wilkes-Barre, Pa. : Jewish Community Center of Wyoming Valley, 1999.
  9. Wilkes-Barre Times Leader, the Evening News – 4 Aug 1921, Thu – Page 11
  10. Joseph Michlosky, 1956; Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1964
  11. ‘Dedication of New Synagogue’ The Wilkes-Barre Record – 1 Feb 1887, Tue – Page 1
  12. ‘Jewish Synagogue Dedicated’ Dollar Weekly News – 12 Feb 1887, Sat – Page 7
  13. ‘Synagogue to Honor Abraham Michlosky’ The Evening News – 19 Feb 1936, Wed – Page 16
  14. ‘Death takes A.Michlosky’ The Evening News – 28 Jun 1938, Tue – Page 2
  15. Abraham Michlosky, 1938; Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1964
  16. ’Death Takes Jacob Cohen: Founder of Lincoln Street Synagogue’ Wilkes-Barre Times Leader, the Evening News – 2 Sep 1932, Fri – Page 15
Posted in Genealogy, Jewish Gen

Early Working Women Relatives: Stenographers in the 1920s

I found a few instances where our women relatives were listed in the early 20th century census as ‘Stenographers.’  I had an idea that this was some type of administrative, secretarial work but decided to do some more digging.  Today a stenographer is almost exclusively employed in courts, but when the typewriter was first invented stenographers were used in almost all corporate office, dictating meetings, calls etc.  In our family tree – I found ‘Stenographer’ show up as an occupation in the 1920s and 1930s census for our immigrant ancestors living in Brooklyn. steno

The Miriam Webster Dictionary defines stenographyas a form of shorthand typing done on a special machine which makes it possible to produce simultaneously a verbatim transcript, for instance in courts.’    Stenographers basically record what is being spoken through shorthand using a machine called a stenotype or typewriter.

Stenography as an office based employment option for our women relatives became available with the rise of the corporate office in the city during the early 20s and 30s. It’s seemed to mainly have been an option for single girls in the 1920s while the majority of married women still stayed at home working as a mother or homemaker.  As corporate offices increased, the need for dictation and data collection and storage became increasingly important. Vintage photos show entire floors in office buildings with rows of desks filled ladies listening to various dictations and typing away. Women also joined the offices in the 20s as clerks, filing assistants and secretaries. While working as a stenographer seems to have been a cleaner and safer option then the garment factories, the pay remained low and they experienced lower status then men including inequality of pay.  In 1927 a report by the Industrial Conference Report showed that the weekly wage of a man was $29.35 compared to $17.36 for women (Miller).  In addition, in the 1920s there weren’t many opportunities for women to be promoted past administrative positions.

stenographers

Stenographers in Brooklyn, 1925 Image Source

According to old newspaper ads that advertise for Stenographer positions in NYC it appears you needed some office experience.  Our relatives who worked as Stenographers must have received a certification and/or taken courses in basic secretarial skills, including typing.  I found a couple of places where our relatives may have gained their skills to find a job in Stenography in 1930s Brooklyn.  Our Jewish relatives may have taken classes at the Young Women’s Hebrew Association on 1578 Lexington Ave.  The YWHA was opened from 1888 for the purpose of immigrant education and had opportunities for Jewish girls and women to take classes in English, embroidery, typing, stenography, book keeping and Hebrew.  There was also the Hebrew Technical School for Girls on 15th and 2nd Avenue that offered various vocational skills courses including dressmaking, typing, bookkeeping, hand sewing, millinery, embroidery and stenography.  In addition, there were a few business colleges open in Manhattan were women went to school to become stenographers, secretaries, and/or teachers.

senoad

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle 
24 May 1925, Sun • Page 49

Also interesting to help think about our relatives in this context is how the working girl as a Stenographer seemed to be a cultural icon in the 1920s.  The first comic strips about a working woman featured Stenographers – including ‘Somebody’s Stenog’ (1918-1941),Winnie Winkle’ (1920-1996) and ‘Tillie the Toiler’ (1921-1959).

tillie2

Tillie the Toiler, Louis Star 23 December 19

winnie

Winnie the Winkle 1930

 Sources

Merriam Webster Online Dictionary

The Guide to the United States for the Jewish Immigrant by John Foster Carr, published in 1913 by the Daughters of the American Revolution

Young Women’s Hebrew Association

Miller, Nathan, New World Coming: The 1920s And The Making Of Modern America. Da Capo Press, Apr 28, 2009.

Other Fun Reads I found while thinking about our Early Working Women relatives:

Witness2fashion – A Woman’s Clothing Budget for 1924 versus 1936

Office Museum – Gender in the Office

Women’s Bureau of the US Department of Labor Women Workers Infographics in 1920 

 

Posted in Genealogy, Jewish Gen, Pearlman

Planning a visit to Mount Hebron Jewish Cemetery – Queen’s, New York

I am hoping to take the first research trip for J’s family genealogy to the cemetery where his great grandparents, Meyer and Anna Pearlman are buried.  Meyer and Anna immigrated from Russia and I’m hoping that exploring their grave plot might give us some more detailed clues as to their ancestral shtetl (or maybe some names of their siblings).  FindAGrave.com has given me the cemetery and plot information but there hasn’t been a picture posted yet.  Here is what I know of their burial place:
plotspearlman

Mount Hebron Cemetery is located in Flushing, Queens in New York City.  Meyer and Anna came through New York from Russia around 1900 but they settled in Pennsylvania for the majority of their adult lives.  Around 1942 they moved to Brooklyn to live with their older daughter Pearl Epstein in the home of her husband’s family (also from Minsk, Russia) and were later buried in Queens.  What is interesting though is that Pearl is buried with her husband and his family in Montefiore Cemetery.  Which raises the question of why Meyer and Anna are in Mount Hebron if no known children are buried there as well.  Are there other family members in Mount Hebron?

Mount Hebron Cemetery opened to the Jewish community in New York City with its first burial in 1909.  There have been over 217,000 burials since then.  Apparently it is a very large cemetery so we might need a full day to navigate and explore (I have no idea how I will convince J to take a day trip to NY to hang out in a cemetery all day)!  I believe there are also memorial sites for communities lost during the Holocaust which we will want to visit as well.

Through further Mount Hebron research, I learned about society’s that Jewish immigrants formed at the turn of the century to support each other in the New World.  These society’s were formed around shared houses, neighborhoods, synagogues, professions and/or places of origin and not only provided a social life they also supported their members with certain social welfare benefits.  This included health insurance type of benefits and also burial support.  Some of the societies bought large tracts of land in Jewish cemeteries for their members – including in Mount Hebron where 80% of the land was sold to local Jewish societies in the first years.  I looked at the list and it looks like there are 100s maybe even 1,000s of different society plots in Mount Hebron.

The internment search I did on the website for Meyer showed me that he is buried in the Workmen’s Circle Society plot.  Whats interesting here for me is that Meyer lived and worked his adult life in Wilkes-Barre, PA only moving to NY to live with his daughter in his later years – I wonder why, how and if he was a member of this society.  The cemetery website says the Workmen’s Circle plots are in blocks 14, 113, 75, 63, FCIR.   Meyer’s record shows he is in 113, line 13. He is in grave 26 and Anna in 27.

I found website for the Workmen’s Circle Society – today it is a non profit that promotes social justice and Jewish education, including Yiddish!  I emailed them through their contact page to see if they had any information on Meyer’s membership.  They emailed me back within a day and had checked their burial lists and confirmed that both Meyer and Anna were at Mount Hebron, buried next to each other, in the Workmen’s Circle plot.   I also found that genealogists can access paper based records from the Workmen’s circle in English and Yiddish at American Jewish Historical Society in New York.

mt-hebronmap

I guess the next step in this trail is a visit to New York! I’m noting the links below to save in the case that one day we plan this trip.   Any tips on Mount Hebron Cemetery and/or general cemetery visits?

Relevant Links and Sources:

Mount Hebron Cemetery Web Page

Guide to Workmen’s Circle Records

American Jewish Historical Society

Workmen’s Circle

Montefiore Cemetery